Japanese milk bread by hand (no milk powder)

Perfectly fluffy, tender bread with a subtle sweetness and richness. Skip the stand mixer and make this wonderful loaf completely by hand.

One of my favorite parts about visiting Asia is eating the magically soft and fluffy bread. The glossy, golden brown crust breaks open to reveal soft cream-colored layers that you can peel apart like cotton candy. The texture is unlike anything you find at a regular grocery store in the States. It is truly heavenly.

It turns out that this milk bread is actually quite easy to replicate at home. The dough is very soft and sticky, so this bread is usually made in a stand mixer, but I know that not everyone has the luxury of owning one.  I’ve designed this recipe so you can handle the sticky dough completely by hand. In fact, I’ve made the same milk bread both using a stand mixer and by hand, and found the handmade version to be fluffier, taller, and more delicious!

Milk bread 101

The key to perfectly soft, fluffy milk bread is the tangzhong method. You essentially cook flour, milk, and water on the stove to create a thick, pudding-like mixture that you add to your dough. This is what makes it so incredibly light and soft.

Milk bread is also an enriched dough, meaning we’ll be adding eggs, butter, and of course, milk. This will give that delicious, buttery flavor in every bite.

If this is one of your first times making yeasted bread, I suggest you read my Tips and tricks for perfect enriched bread. It’ll walk you through the basic steps of bread-making and give you tips and tricks to troubleshoot along the way.

Tricks to make milk bread without a stand mixer

  • First, we’re going to proof our yeast and milk together rather than adding the yeast dry to the dough
  • Then, we’re going to add the flour, eggs, tangzhong mixture, and yeast and milk without adding sugar or salt. We’ll then let it rest for 20-30 minutes. This step (called autolysing if you’re feeling technical) is so we can let the liquid soak into the flour, which will strengthen the gluten. Adding sugar and salt will inhibit this process, so we’ll do that later. Autolysing will magically make your dough easier to handle before we head into kneading. 20-30 minutes may seem like a while to wait, but I promise it will make your life easier later on.
  • We’ll then add the sugar and salt. To do this, we’ll dump the dough out on the countertop and sprinkle the sugar and salt on top. We’ll push the dough, salt, and sugar out in small increments, so it’s smeared thinly over the countertop. Then we’ll gather it back to the center to form a pile. We’ll repeat this again and again until you don’t feel the sugar and salt grains anymore. This is called fraisage. Minute 2:50 of this video is a good example of fraisage with dough.
  • Using fraisage again, we’ll then incorporate our butter. For this step, you need to make sure your butter is very soft (not melted) and cut into small pieces.
  • Last trick is to use the “slap and fold” technique instead of regular kneading. Because the dough is soft and sticky, it’s hard to knead by pushing and pulling. Resist the temptation to add flour and use the slap and fold technique instead. You’ll lift up the dough in one hand and then slap it down on the countertop. Then fold over the piece in your hand to the top of the dough on the countertop. Then raise, slap, fold, and repeat again. Soon you’ll find the dough likes sticking to itself more than it likes sticking to your hands and countertop. Minute 2:10 of this video is a good example of slap and fold.

So in summary: milk bread is hard to make by hand because the dough is so sticky and soft. To fix that, we’re going to 1) let the flour and wet ingredients rest for 20 minutes to strengthen the gluten 2) incorporate salt, sugar, and butter by smearing and mixing on the countertop and 3) slap and fold the dough instead of kneading.

Some tips to make your milk bread look beautiful

  • When shaping, make sure your dough is rolled out evenly, otherwise your final loaf will be lumpy
  • Use an egg wash to give it that beautiful golden brown color

The best part is, rise time for milk bread is relatively short. So it is as close to instant gratification as bread can get!

Other enriched bread recipes:

If you make this recipe, please let me know! I always love to see what my readers are baking. You can comment below or tag me on Instagram @halicopteraway.

Ingredient proportions adapted from the NY Times

Perfectly fluffy, tender bread with a subtle sweetness and richness. Skip the stand mixer and make this wonderful loaf completely by hand.
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5 from 11 votes

Japanese milk bread by hand

Perfectly fluffy, tender bread with a subtle sweetness and richness. Skip the stand mixer and make this wonderful loaf completely by hand.
Course Breakfast, Dessert
Cuisine Japanese
Keyword baking, bread, enriched dough, yeast
Prep Time 30 minutes
Cook Time 35 minutes
Rest Time (Rising and Cooling) 3 hours
Servings 1 loaf


  • 1 medium mixing bowl
  • 1 small skillet or pot
  • 1 9'' by 5'' loaf pan
  • Rolling Pin
  • dough scraper (optional but helpful)


For tangzhong (makes 1 cup, you will need 1/2 cup)

  • 1/3 cup (45g) bread flour
  • 1/2 cup (120g) water
  • 1/2 cup (120g) whole milk

For dough

  • 1/2 cup tangzhong (see above)
  • 1/2 cup (120g) warm milk
  • 2 tsp (7g) active dry or instant yeast
  • 2 1/2 cups (325g) bread flour
  • 1 egg
  • 1/4 cup (50g) granulated sugar
  • 1 tsp (4g) salt
  • 4 tbsp (60g) unsalted butter, room temperature, cut into pieces
  • olive oil for greasing

For egg wash

  • 1 egg
  • 1 tbsp milk or water


Make tangzhong

  • In small skillet or pot, whisk together flour, milk, and water until smooth. Bring to simmer over medium-low heat, whisking frequently, until mixture has thickened but is still pourable. It should take 5 – 10 minutes. Your whisk should leave a mark when dragged along the bottom of the pan.
  • Pour into a bowl and cover surface with plastic wrap to prevent a film from forming, and allow to cool to room temperature.

Make dough

  • Mix together yeast and warm milk and set aside for 5 minutes. The milk should feel comfortably warm to the touch, but not hot, otherwise it will kill your yeast.
  • Combine flour, egg, milk & yeast mixture, 1/2 cup of tangzhong starter in a medium mixing bowl. Mix together with your hands until combined. Cover with a damp kitchen or paper towel and let sit for 20 – 30 minutes.
  • Pour dough out onto clean countertop or nonstick surface. Don't worry if it is quite sticky. Gently smooth out the dough and sprinkle surface with sugar and salt. Gently fold the dough over the sugar and salt a few times. Then, mix using the fraisage method – slowly push the dough out until it is thinly smeared on the countertop, then gather back in to one lump. Repeat the smearing and gathering until you no longer feel the salt and sugar grains.
  • Gently smooth out the dough and place softened pieces of butter in the center. Gently fold the dough over the butter a few times. Again, mix using the fraisage method – slowly push the dough out until it is thinly smeared on the countertop, then gather back in to one lump. Repeat the smearing and gathering until you no longer see streaks of butter.
  • Knead using the slap and fold method. Do not add flour. Lift the dough up and "slap" it onto the countertop. Fold up, raise, and repeat until the dough is smooth and passes the window pane test. You'll notice the dough sticking more to itself than to your hands or the countertop.
  • Shape into a ball and place into a lightly greased mixing bowl. Cover with plastic wrap and let rise for 40 – 60 minutes until roughly doubled in size.
  • Remove the dough from the bowl and cut into 4 even pieces. Shape roughly until 4 balls and let rise for another 15 minutes. Lightly grease your baking tin.
  • Using a rolling pin, roll each ball into a rectangle about 12 inches long and 4 inches wide. Lightly flour the rolling pin to prevent sticking. With the short end facing you, roll the dough away from you to form a 4 inch wide coil. Place into the greased baking tin. Repeat with the remaining 3 balls of dough and place them side by side in the tin.
  • Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Allow the loaf to proof for 45 – 60 minutes. When you press your finger into the loaf, it should slowly come back about halfway. Whisk together egg and milk or water, then brush the top of the loaf with egg wash.
  • Place in the lower third of the oven and bake for 35 minutes until golden brown and makes a hollow sound when tapped.


  1. If you want to make this using a stand mixer with a dough hook: add the salt and sugar when you add the flour, egg, milk and tangzhong starter. Mix for 1 – 2 minutes until combined. While the stand mixer is running, add the softened butter in pieces. Mix for ~15 minutes on medium low speed until the dough passes the window pane test. If using a stand mixer, there is no need to let the dough sit for 20 – 30 minutes before kneading.

46 thoughts on “Japanese milk bread by hand (no milk powder)”

  1. What a gorgeous golden crust and such a thoughtful tutorial 🙂 Love that you made the recipe possible without a standmixer – and I adore the slap and fold method!! It’s really changed how I make a lot of breads – even though I do have access to a stand mixer, sometimes it just seems more convenient to work in the butter by hand (no scraping down the dough hook, etc).

    1. Thank you! Yes I’ve picked up the slap and fold method from making sourdough, where the dough is always very wet. I think I’m converted to skipping the stand mixer now and just doing everything by hand, because you also get a better feel for how the dough is developing!

  2. Hey, I think you forgot to list the egg in the dough in the ingredients, it’s just one egg, yeah? Anyway I used one and it came ouf beautifully =)

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  5. 5 stars
    Hi Hali, thanks for amazing recipe. Just a curious question, what should I do with the other half of the tangzhong dough? Can I freeze it for later use or another recipe? I don’t make bread very often.
    If to use for other recipe, how to measure the proportion of the tangzhong dough in that recipe?
    Thank you, you will help me a lot since I am so curious about the method.

    1. Hi Novi! If you don’t bake bread often, I recommend cutting the tangzhong recipe in half and using 3tbsp of bread flour, 1/4 cup water, and 1/4 cup milk. Just make sure to keep an eye on it as it cooks a bit faster with half the ingredients!

  6. 5 stars
    Hi Hali! I found you through SAB! Thank you for this amazing recipe! I followed it really carefully and I found your tips and links very insightful! Thank you!! 🙂 This is now my go-to milk bun recipe!

    1. Thank you Juliana! I’m so glad you enjoyed the recipe and the detailed instructions. Hope you’ll bake many more delicious milk breads in the future!! 😋

  7. Hi, in step 2, is the milk referring to the warm milk or is it another additional milk we have to add?

  8. just wondering, can i make the tangzhong the night before and keep it chill in fridge? I have seen other recipes that instructed so, as long as it is given an hour to return back to room temp.

  9. Hi Hali, this bread looks so good. My only question is that I don’t eat butter or margarine. Is there a replacement? Thank you.

      1. Hi Ms. Hali, thank you so much for your response. Will using coconut oil give it that coconut taste? Will canola oil work?

        Merry Christmas 🎄

        1. Coconut probably will give it a coconut taste. I’ve never tried with canola oil – there might be some texture different since canola oil is liquid at room temperature. If you decide to give it a try let me know how it turns out!

  10. 5 stars
    Just made this tonight and it came out perfectly. I found the recipe and the tips to be super helpful. How do I store the remainder of the tangzhong?

  11. 5 stars
    I’ve made this recipe three times now and it has always been wonderful. I’m glad I found a way to make milk bread without a mixer–simply no space to keep one in my small apartment. I’ve also experimented with baking the bread into different shapes and with coconut filling. It’s the perfect base for experimentation!

  12. Hi Hali,

    Great recipe and everyone loves the bread I made! Thank you!
    If I doubled the recipe will the bake time be any different?

    1. Hi Zeni, as long as you keep the loaf sizes the same, the bake time should be similar. It might take a few minutes longer if you are baking the loaves at the same time.

      I would not recommend doubling the recipe and making a giant loaf, since it may not cook all the way through. Hope this helps and glad you enjoyed the recipe!!

  13. 5 stars
    Fantastic recipe. I make this at least once a week/bi-weekly. Perfect for avocado toast; it has a nice, soft texture and toasts wonderfully. I generally make two loaves instead of throwing out the other half of the tangzhong. I know the recipe calls for 4x coiled rolls but after a bunch of configurations, it does work very well as a single loaf or can be coiled many times for peel-apart rolls.

    Highly recommend making this, just be aware if you’re new to the slap-and-fold technique, you might have pieces of dough flying around your kitchen so take it easy the first few minutes of forming the dough.

  14. Hi! I’m usually baking sour dough bread so this is a little different from what I’m used to. I’m halfway through the process and realized I didn’t budget my time correctly to bake this lol do you think I could put the dough in the fridge after it’s proofed in the tin and then bake it later today?

    1. Hi Claire, that should be fine just keep in mind that it takes some time for yeast activity to slow down after you put it in the fridge. Additionally, depending on the temperature in the fridge the loaf may still proof for a little bit. So I would err on the side of very slightly underproofed before you pop it in the fridge!

      The bake time may also be longer because you’re baking a cooled down instead of room temperature loaf. Hope this helps!

  15. Hi there – this is a great recipe. I just realized I mixed the salt in the with flour (habit) and did not put it with the sugar on the counter. Do you think that this will have any impact on the dough?

    1. Hi, it may just take a little longer to knead by hand since salt inhibits the autolyse process. But won’t have a huge impact overall as long as you knead until window pane

    1. Hi Anna, yes the recipe will still work with regular all purpose flour. However, the dough will be stickier and harder to handle, and the loaf won’t rise as much or be as fluffy. I recommend bread flour if you can!

  16. 5 stars
    I am used to make this bread with the help of my Kitchenaid but I am temporarily separated from it so needed a recipe which only uses “elbow grease”
    Extremely pleased with your recipe.
    I am sorry to say that I made just a tiny little change .. instead of 50g sugar i used 25g sugar and 25g powdered milk.
    It is an absolute winner. I will be making bread using your recipe until I am reunited with my machine but maybe even after that
    tank you

  17. 5 stars
    Had a good time making this really simple recipe! This is my first time making homemade bread but it went pretty smoothly. The only thing is, my bread came out a little dry & crumbly and wasn’t super fluffy, so I was wondering if you knew where I went wrong? It is still very yummy but not the texture I was expecting. For reference I used AP flour because it was all I had and 1% milk again because it was all I had. Was the dough too dry? Or was it an issue with proofing/kneading maybe? Any tips as to what I could do differently next time would be super appreciated! Very proud of myself otherwise since it’s my very first time making bread haha. Will attempt again!

    1. Hi Nadia! Congrats on your first loaf of bread! Here are some tips to achieve a fluffier, softer crumb:
      1) bread flour will definitely make the final loaf fluffier
      2) make sure you knead to window pane state
      3) be careful not to overproof, as that can cause the loaf to deflate
      4) be careful not to over bake

      Hope this helps!

  18. 5 stars
    I want to make this recipe and give it to someone in three days, will the loaf be good then? And how would I store the bread to keep it fresh the longest?

    1. Hi Maddi, I think the loaf would not be as fresh in 3 days as it tastes best within 1-2 days. You could try freezing it after baking and cooling, and then thaw before gifting

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